It is advisable to take into consideration the green area during construction planning.
You will need to determine which plants are required during the design stage.
If static plants are required, select the most appropriate position and provide any necessary hard standing. If mobile, check on circulation routes for optimum efficiency, suitability and maintenance.

Planting around the house has many benefits. Plants improve the ecosystem and sometimes serve as habitat for birds and provide foods.
Other benefits of plants are below:

  • Plants absorb sound, reducing noise pollution
  • They provide shade thus reducing heat
  • They make homes attractive thereby increasing property value
  • Plants can be used to establish boundaries
  • They can be used to solve erosion issues
  • Plants can act as screens to provide privacy
  • Scented plants will make the home smell nice
  • Plants that have thorns or spines can be used for security purposes

Planting trees can have an impact on a building’s foundation, so it is good to seek professional advice for choice of plant species and maintenance.

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Preparing a budget for your dream home is not a difficult task.
Having communicated one’s intention to the Architect, he will produce a drawing based on the client’s requirements and pass the drawing to the Service Engineers to produce theirs. All the drawings will now be passed to the Quantity Surveyor to prepare a preliminary budget.
This preliminary budget will show the cost implications of the project, specifications and list of work to be done, which will serve as a checklist for the client.
If this budget prepared by the Quantity Surveyor exceeds the client’s budget for the proposed home, then the Architect and the Service Engineers have to change and reduce the scope of their design to suit the financial capability of the client without compromising the standard.
Once the scope of the work has been changed, the Quantity Surveyor will prepare a final budget based on the new specifications, subject to approval by the client.
Upon such approval, the Quantity Surveyor will now prepare a bill of Quantity which will indicate the cost implications of the project, condition of contract, duration of the project, specifications and list of work to be done.
This cost computation of a particular project will help the client in managing his or her resources and at the same time serve as a checklist for the work to be done without exceeding the proposed budget.

Other advantages of cost computation or a budget are that it serves as a tool for cost comparison of alternate design, cost planning, to determine cost variation and to determine terms of payment to the contractor, thus preventing the contractor from claiming in excess of what is expected. It also helps to prevent abandonment of building projects.

The Bible also shows why it is important to prepare a budget before embarking on a building project in LUKE 14:28.

Be wise, engage a professional, it saves cost and time.

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Leakages at home can be Water leakage, Gas leakage, Roof leakage or Electricity leakage.

Water leakage

Water is the most common source of leaks in buildings. Leaks from pipes, plumbing fixtures and fittings are significant sources of water waste for many households.
Some leaks are obvious while many leaks go undetected for years because the source of leak is not visible.
The most common parts of the building where leakages are prevalent are the toilet, bathroom, roof tank and kitchen. Water leaks in homes can be as a result of the following;

  • Uses of inferior material
  • Poor workmanship
  • Pressure on joint
  • Old and faulty fittings
  • Drilling of walls to fix sanitary and kitchen fittings
  • Drilling of pipes during maintenance work

Signs of water leaks to be observed in buildings include the following:

  • Peeling of paint or flaking
  • Water stains on the ceiling and wall
  • Mold spots on the wall
  • Damp floor or wall
  • Loose tiles
  • Water seeping out around the base of the toilet
  • Loose or damaged flooring
  • Deteriorating sanitary fittings

Leakage of water can cause serious damage to buildings and the inhabitants. So proper care should be taken to solve or prevent this problem by adopting the following:

  • Materials should be hard, smooth, impervious and not combustible
  • Pressure test should be carried out after running of pipes in the wall
  • Water should be left running in the pipes during tilling and installation of sanitary fittings for easy detection of leaks
  • Expert advice should be sort
  • Replace old and faulty fittings
  • Ensure that joints are properly tightened
  • Replace damaged tiles

Gas leakage

Gas leaks in the home are usually the result of poorly fitted, badly maintained or faulty appliances like boilers, air conditioner and cookers. A gas leak can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning, fires and even explosions. Leakage of gas can lead to the loss of materials and life, which can be avoided by the following:

  • Ensure that appliances are installed by an expert
  • Replace old and faulty appliance
  • Install a carbon monoxide detector in your house and change the battery annually (Note: a carbon monoxide detector is different from a smoke detector)
  • Check for wear and tear periodically
  • Turn off the gas supply valve if you suspect there is a leak
  • Open all the windows and doors to allow for fresh air
  • If you can’t open the window for any reason, get outside and into the fresh air as soon as possible

Roof leakage

A roof leak can lead to rotting frames, mold and damaged ceilings.
If you have water stains that extend across ceilings or run down the walls, the cause is probably a roof leak.
A roof leak can be tracked by going up onto the roof and examining things. It is always good to carry out the tracking during the rainy season, but if this is not possible a garden hose can be used to wet the suspected area with someone inside the house waiting for the drip to appear. The hose should be allowed to run for several minutes in one area before moving it. Common leaks can be avoided by the following:

  • Engaging the services of an expert
  • Ensuring flashing and roof gutter are properly fixed
  • Using double layer roof felt for the roof tank and flat roof

Electricity leakage

Leakage of electricity can result in electric shock, which can lead to serious injury or even death. Leakage of electricity can be prevented by the following:

  • Engage the services of an expert
  • Cover all sockets and outlets
  • Turn electricity off before maintenance work
  • Install circuit breakers, outlets and adapters
  • Store and use electric devices away from water
  • Replace worn or damaged equipment
  • Use quality and recommended materials by the expert for household electrical works


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Be safety conscious when you are trying to unblock your toilet. Make sure the room is well-ventilated, put on a pair of protective rubber gloves and mop up spillages.

Below are tips on how to unblock a clogged toilet:

  • Do not flush a blocked toilet to prevent the toilet from overflowing
  • Put on your rubber gloves, check if it is an object causing the blockage and pull it out
  • If the above doesn’t work, it is time to use your plunger. Gently push the plunger up and down against the blockage to dislodge it. Flush and clean the toilet
  • If using the plunger does not work, you can buy a commercial drain cleaner and follow the instructions, or use a homemade drain cleaner
  • Call a professional if you do not succeed in unblocking the toilet on your own



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Every home should be safe and healthy to live in. A healthy and safe home must be clean, dry, ventilated, safe, well-maintained, free of pests and contaminants.
Follow the useful tips below to prevent problems that could harm the health or safety of anyone living in your home:

  • Keep your home well ventilated
  • Remove clutter on floors to reduce the risk of a fall
  • Repair holes and cracks to control pests and insects
  • Use safe pests and insects control methods
  • Repair water leaks and plumbing fixtures
  • Keep all floors clean and dry
  • Clean drainages regularly
  • Install a smoke alarm and check the batteries regularly
  • Be careful with matches, lighters, cigarettes and candles
  • Switch off electrical appliances when they are not in use
  • Do not trail cables under the carpets or rugs
  • Do not overload your plug sockets
  • Seek the advice of a professional if you have electrical problems
  • Do not use a table or chair as a makeshift ladder
  • Keep medicines, detergents, bleaches, pesticides and other dangerous chemicals out of reach of children
  • Do not leave young children unsupervised at bath time
  • Keep blades, scissors, knives and other sharp objects out of reach of children

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1. Burj Khalifa, Dubai

The Burj Khalifa is the tallest structure in the world at 829.8 m (2,722 ft).
Construction of the skyscraper began in 2004 and it was officially opened in 2010.


2. Casa Milà, Barcelona

Casa Milà also known as La Pedrera, one of the works of Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí was built from 1906 to 1912.


3. CN Tower, Canada

The CN Tower is one of the tallest free-standing structures in the world at 1,815.4 ft. Construction of the Tower began in 1973 and it was completed in 1976.


4. Colosseum, Rome


The Colosseum, an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome is the largest amphitheater ever built. Construction was between AD 72 and AD 80.


5. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem


The Dome of the Rock, one of the oldest works of Islamic architecture was constructed between 688 and 691 CE.


6. Eiffel Tower, Paris

The Eiffel Tower constructed in 1889 is 324 meters (1,063 ft) tall and is one of the tallest man-made structures in the world.


7. Gherkin, London

The Gherkin, an iconic symbol of London is 180 meters tall. The building also known as 30 St Mary Axe is a commercial skyscraper and was opened in 2004.


8. La Sagrada Familia, Barcelona


The giant Basilica, one of the famous works of Spanish architect Antoni Gaudí has been under construction since 1892 and it’s not yet completed.


9. Sydney Opera House, Australia

The Sydney Opera House, opened in 1973 is recognised as one of the 20th century’s most unique buildings.


10. Saint Basil’s Cathedral, Moscow

The Cathedral, a world-famous landmark is shaped as a flame of a bonfire rising into the sky. It was built from 1555 to 1560 and commissioned by Ivan the Terrible.


11. Taj Mahal, India

The Taj Mahal, India’s most famous architectural wonder was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631 to house the tomb of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. The white marble mausoleum is a monument of a love story.


12. The Shard, London

The Shard London, designed as a spire-like sculpture emerging from the River Thames is one of the tallest buildings in the world, standing at 309.6 meters (1,016 ft) high.

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Clean water, basic toilets and good hygiene practices are essential for the survival and development of people.

Today there are around 2.4 billion people who do not use improved sanitation systems, and 663 million who do not have access to improved water sources.
Over 800 children die from preventable diseases caused by poor water and a lack of sanitation and hygiene (UNICEF).

Sanitation can be defined as the collection, transportation, treatment and disposal of soil waste, domestic wastewater, and solid waste through a sewage system.

The main objective of a sanitation system is to protect and promote human health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of disease, to protect the natural resources (such as surface water and ground soil water) and to provide security, safety and dignity to people when they defecate and urinate.

Sanitation in major Nigeria buildings are in the form of septic and soak away systems, pit latrines except for some parts of Abuja and Lagos that have central sewage system.
The sources of water supply to a building are either government, water vendors or borehole.
The responsibility of water supply in Nigeria into various buildings is shared between three levels of government – federal, state and local.
The federal government is in charge of water resources management, state governments have the primary responsibility for urban water supply, and local governments together with the communities are responsible for rural water supply.
Water supply and sanitation are not provided efficiently by the government, thus resulting in different households sourcing for water either from water vendors, by sinking well or borehole, or fetching from the river.

According to UNICEF/WHO, improved drinking water includes household connections, public stand pipes, boreholes, protected wells and springs while improved sanitation includes public sewer or septic system, pour-flush latrines, ventilated improved pit latrines and pit latrines with slabs.

The following should be taken into consideration while planning an improved water supply and sanitation systems for households:

• Materials should be hard, smooth, impervious, and non-combustible
• Every part of the system must be easily accessible
• Drains should have sufficient fall
• Drains should be properly ventilated or air-flushed throughout
• Service pipe must not pass through a drainage inspection chamber
• Pipes used in a building must not contaminate potable water supply, and must be suitable for the water pressure
• Manhole and inspection chamber should be introduced at the junctions of branch drain, and change of direction
• Soak away should be properly constructed and connected to septic tank for optimal functionality
• Necessary tests should be carried out on pipes, sanitary fittings, water treatment plants, manholes, inspection chambers, etc
• Expert advice should not be ignored

Building construction handbook by Roy Chudley & Roger Greeno

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